ACCA is a professional accountancy qualification recognized in more than 170 countries. On your pathway to completing ACCA you will gain a number of different qualifications, including a Bsc.(Hons) Degree from the prestigious Oxford Brookes University in the UK. ACCA is a global qualification preferred by employers, educational institutes, and governments all over the world. The competitive job market constantly requires competent finance professionals, consequently increasing the worldwide demand for ACCA qualified individuals. The ACCA professional qualification enables you to become a Chartered Certified Accountant and use the designation ‘ACCA’ after your name. It prepares you to work in the fields of audit, taxation, financial accounting, management accounting and various other diversified areas.

Achievers provides you with comprehensive courses on all three levels of the ACCA qualification under its panel of world-class lecturers leading you to excellence.

Founded in 1930, the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) is the global professional accounting body offering the Chartered Certified Accountant qualification (ACCA or FCCA). ACCA has 178,000 members and 455,000 students in 180 countries.

Chartered Certified Accountant is the professional body’s main qualification. Following completion of up to 14 professional examinations, three years of supervised, relevant accountancy experience and a professional ethics module, it enables an individual to become a Chartered Certified Accountant.

The ACCA professional examinations are offered worldwide four times yearly, in March, June, September and December as paper-based exams. A Bachelor of Science (Honors) degree in Applied Accounting (after completing the Fundamentals level of the exams, the professional ethics module and submitting a Research and Analysis Project), is offered in association with Oxford Brookes University.

The syllabus comprises 14 examinations, although some exemptions are available. The qualification is structured in two parts.

The Fundamentals Level

Consists of 9 examinations

The business organisation, its stakeholders and the external environment

  1. The purpose and types of business organisation
  2. Stakeholders in business organisations
  3. Political and legal factors affecting business
  4. Macroeconomic factors
  5. Micro economic factors
  6. Social and demographic factors
  7. Technological factors
  8. Environmental factors
  9. Competitive factors

Business organisational structure, functions and governance

  1. The formal and informal business organisation
  2. Business organisational structure and design
  3. Organisational culture in business
  4. Committees in business organisations
  5. Governance and social responsibility in business

Accounting and reporting systems, controls and compliance

  1. The relationship between accounting and other business functions
  2. Accounting and finance functions within business organisations
  3. Principles of law and regulation governing accounting and auditing
  4. The sources and purpose of internal and external financial information, provided by business
  5. Financial systems, procedures and related IT applications
  6. Internal controls, authorisation, security of data and compliance within business
  7. Fraud and fraudulent behaviour and their prevention in business, including money laundering.

Leading and managing individuals and teams

  1. Leadership, management and supervision
  2. Recruitment and selection of employees
  3. Individual and group behaviour in business organisations
  4. Team formation, development and management
  5. Motivating individuals and groups
  6. Learning and training at work
  7. Review and appraisal of individual performance.

Personal effectiveness and communication

  1. Personal effectiveness techniques
  2. Consequences of ineffectiveness at work
  3. Competence frameworks and personal development
  4. Sources of conflicts and techniques for conflict resolution and referral
  5. Communicating in business.

Professional ethics in accounting and business

  1. Fundamental principles of ethical behaviour
  2. The role of regulatory and professional bodies in promoting ethical and professional standards in the accountancy profession
  3. Corporate codes of ethics
  4. Ethical conflicts and dilemmas

The nature, source and purpose of management information

  1. Accounting for management
  2. Sources of data
  3. Cost classification
  4. Presenting information

Cost accounting techniques.

  1. Accounting for material, labour and overheads
  2. Absorption and marginal costing
  3. Cost accounting methods
  4. Alternative cost accounting principles

Budgeting

  1. Nature and purpose of budgeting
  2. Statistical techniques
  3. Budget preparation
  4. Flexible budgets
  5. Capital budgeting and discounted cash flow
  6. Budgetary control and reporting
  7. Behavioural aspects of budgeting

Standard costing

  1. Standard costing system
  2. Variance calculations and analysis
  3. Reconciliation of budgeted and actual profit

Performance measurement

  1. Performance measurement - overview
  2. Performance measurement - application
  3. Cost reductions and value enhancement
  4. Monitoring performance and reporting

The context and purpose of financial reporting

  1. The scope and purpose of financial statements for external reporting
  2. Users’ and stakeholders’ needs
  3. The main elements of financial reports
  4. The regulatory framework (legislation and regulation, reasons and limitations, relevance of accounting standards)
  5. Duties and responsibilities of those charged with governance.

The qualitative characteristics of financial information

The use of double-entry and accounting systems

  1. Double-entry book-keeping principles including the maintenance of accounting records and sources of accounting information
  2. Ledger accounts, books of prime entry, and journals

Recording transactions and events

  1. Sales and purchases
  2. Cash
  3. Inventory
  4. Tangible non-current assets
  5. Depreciation
  6. Intangible non-current assets and amortisation
  7. Accruals and prepayments
  8. Receivables and payables
  9. Provisions and contingencies
  10. Capital structure and finance costs

Preparing a trial balance

  1. Trial balance
  2. Correction of errors
  3. Control accounts and reconciliations
  4. Bank reconciliations
  5. Suspense accounts

Preparing basic financial statements

  1. Statements of financial position
  2. Statements of profit or loss and other comprehensive income
  3. Disclosure notes

4 Events after the reporting period

  1. Statements of cash flows
  2. Incomplete records

Preparing simple consolidated financial statements

  1. Subsidiaries
  2. Associates

Interpretation of financial statements

  1. Importance and purpose of analysis of financial statements
  2. Ratios
  3. Analysis of financial statements

Essential elements of the legal system

  1. Law and the legal system
  2. Source of law

The law of obligations

  1. Formation of contract
  2. Content of contracts
  3. Breach of contract and remedies
  4. The law of torts and professional negligence

Employment law

  1. Contract of employment
  2. Dismissal and redundancy

The formation and constitution of business organisations

  1. Agency law
  2. Partnerships
  3. Corporations and legal personality
  4. The formation and constitution of a company

Capital and the financing of companies

  1. Share capital
  2. Loan capital
  3. Capital maintenance and dividend law

Management, administration and the regulation of companies

  1. Company directors
  2. Other company officers
  3. Company meetings and resolutions

Insolvency law

  1. Insolvency and administration

Corporate fraudulent and criminal behaviour

  1. Fraudulent and criminal behaviour

Specialist cost and management accounting techniques

  1. Activity-based costing
  2. Target costing
  3. Life-cycle costing
  4. Throughput accounting
  5. Environmental accounting

Decision-making techniques

  1. Relevant cost analysis
  2. Cost volume analysis
  3. Limiting factors
  4. Pricing decisions
  5. Make-or-buy and other short-term decisions
  6. Dealing with risk and uncertainty in decision-making

Budgeting and control

  1. Budgetary systems and types of budget
  2. Quantitative analysis in budgeting
  3. Standard costing
  4. Material mix and yield variances
  5. Sales mix and quantity variances
  6. Planning and operational variances
  7. Performance analysis

Performance measurement and control

  1. Performance management information systems
  2. Sources of management information
  3. Management reports
  4. Performance analysis in private sector organisations
  5. Divisional performance and transfer pricing
  6. Performance analysis in not-for profit organisations and the public sector
  7. External considerations and behavioural aspects

The UK tax system and its administration

  1. The overall function and purpose of taxation in a modern economy
  2. Principal sources of revenue law and practice
  3. The systems for self-assessment and the making of returns
  4. The time limits for the submission of information, claims and payment of tax, including payments on account
  5. The procedures relating to compliance checks, appeals and disputes
  6. Penalties for non-compliance

Income tax and NIC liabilities

  1. The scope of income tax
  2. Income from employment
  3. Income from self-employment
  4. Property and investment income
  5. The comprehensive computation of taxable income and income tax liability
  6. National insurance contributions for employed and self-employed persons
  7. The use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising income tax liabilities

Chargeable gains for individuals

  1. The scope of the taxation of capital gains
  2. The basic principles of computing gains and losses
  3. Gains and losses on the disposal of movable and immovable property
  4. Gains and losses on the disposal of shares and securities
  5. The computation of capital gains tax
  6. The use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising tax liabilities arising on the disposal of capital assets

Inheritance tax

  1. The basic principles of computing transfers of value
  2. The liabilities arising on chargeable lifetime transfers and on the death of an individual
  3. The use of exemptions in deferring and minimising inheritance tax liabilities
  4. Payment of inheritance tax

Corporation tax liabilities

  1. The scope of corporation tax
  2. Taxable total profits
  3. Chargeable gains for companies
  4. The comprehensive computation of corporation tax liability
  5. The effect of a group corporate structure for corporation tax purposes
  6. The use of exemptions and reliefs in deferring and minimising corporation tax liabilities

Value added tax (VAT)

  1. The VAT registration requirements
  2. The computation of VAT liabilities
  3. The effect of special schemes

The conceptual and regulatory framework for financial reporting

  1. The need for a conceptual framework and the characteristics of useful information
  2. Recognition and measurement
  3. Regulatory framework
  4. The concepts and principles of groups and consolidated financial statements

Accounting for transactions in financial statements

  1. Tangible non-current assets
  2. Intangible assets
  3. Impairment of assets
  4. Inventory and biological assets
  5. Financial instruments
  6. Leasing
  7. Provisions and events after the reporting period
  8. Taxation
  9. Reporting financial performance
  10. Revenue
  11. Government grants
  12. Foreign currency transactions

Analysing and interpreting the financial statements of single entities and groups

  1. Limitations of financial statements
  2. Calculation and interpretation of accounting ratios and trends to address users’ and stakeholders’ needs
  3. Limitations of interpretation techniques
  4. Specialised, not-for-profit, and public-sector entities

Preparation of financial statements

  1. Preparation of single entity financial statements
  2. Preparation of consolidated financial statements including an associate

Audit framework and regulation

  1. The concept of audit and other assurance engagements
  2. External audits
  3. Corporate governance
  4. Professional ethics and ACCA’s Code of Ethics and Conduct

Planning and risk assessment

  1. Obtaining, accepting and continuing audit engagements
  2. Objective and general principles
  3. Assessing audit risks
  4. Understanding the entity and its environment
  5. Fraud, laws and regulations
  6. Audit planning and documentation

Internal control

  1. Internal control systems
  2. The use and evaluation of internal control systems by auditors
  3. Tests of control
  4. Communication on internal control
  5. Internal audit and governance and the differences between external audit and internal audit
  6. The scope of the internal audit function, outsourcing and internal audit assignments

 

Audit evidence

  1. Financial statement assertions and audit evidence
  2. Audit procedures
  3. Audit sampling and other means of testing
  4. The audit of specific items
  5. Computer-assisted audit techniques
  6. The work of others

7 Not-for-profit organisations

Review and reporting

  1. Subsequent events
  2. Going concern
  3. Written representations
  4. Audit finalisation and the final review
  5. The Independent Auditor’s Report

Financial management function

  1. The nature and purpose of financial management
  2. Financial objectives and relationship with corporate strategy
  3. Stakeholders and impact on corporate objectives
  4. Financial and other objectives in not for-profit organisations

Financial management environment

  1. The economic environment for business
  2. The nature and role of financial markets and institutions
  3. The nature and role of money markets

Working capital management

  1. The nature, elements and importance of working capital
  2. Management of inventories, accounts receivable, accounts payable and cash
  3. Determining working capital needs and funding strategies

Investment appraisal

  1. Investment appraisal techniques
  2. Allowing for inflation and taxation in investment appraisal
  3. Adjusting for risk and uncertainty in investment appraisal
  4. Specific investment decisions (lease or buy; asset replacement, capital rationing)

Business finance

  1. Sources of, and raising, business finance
  2. Estimating the cost of capital
  3. Sources of finance and their relative costs
  4. Capital structure theories and practical considerations
  5. Finance for small- and medium sized entities

Business valuations

  1. Nature and purpose of the valuation of business and financial assets
  2. Models for the valuation of shares
  3. The valuation of debt and other financial assets
  4. Efficient market hypothesis (EMH) and practical considerations in the valuation of shares

Risk management

  1. The nature and types of risk and approaches to risk management
  2. Causes of exchange rate differences and interest rate fluctuations
  3. Hedging techniques for foreign currency risk
  4. Hedging techniques for interest rate risk

The Professional Level

Consists of 5 examinations. *Two papers are compulsory

Leadership

  1. Qualities of leadership
  2. Leadership and organisational culture
  3. Professionalism, ethical codes and the public interest

Governance

  1. Agency
  2. Stakeholder analysis and organisational social responsibility
  3. Governance scope and approaches
  4. Reporting to stakeholders
  5. The board of directors
  6. Public sector governance

Strategy

  1. Concepts of strategy
  2. Environmental issues
  3. Competitive forces
  4. The internal resources, capabilities and competences of an organisation
  5. Strategic choices

Risk

  1. Identification, assessment and measurement of risk
  2. Managing, monitoring and mitigating risk

Technology and data analytics

  1. Cloud and mobile technology
  2. Big data and data analytics
  3. E- business: value chain
  4. IT systems security and control

Organisational control and audit

  1. Management and internal control systems
  2. Audit and compliance
  3. Internal control and management reporting

Finance in planning and decision-making

  1. Finance function
  2. Financial analysis and decision-making techniques
  3. Cost and management accounting

Innovation, performance excellence and change management

  1. Enabling success: organising
  2. Enabling success: disruptive technologies
  3. Enabling success: talent management
  4. Enabling success: performance excellence
  5. Managing strategic change
  6. Innovation and change management
  7. Leading and managing projects

Professional skills

  1. Communication
  2. Commercial acumen
  3. Analysis
  4. Scepticism
  5. Evaluation

Fundamental ethical and professional principles

  1. Professional behaviour and compliance with accounting standards
  2. Ethical requirements of corporate reporting and the consequences of unethical behaviour

The financial reporting framework

  1. The applications, strengths and weaknesses of the accounting framework

Reporting the financial performance of a range of entities

  1. Revenue
  2. Non-current assets
  3. Financial instruments
  4. Leases
  5. Employee benefits
  6. Income taxes
  7. Provisions, contingencies and events after the reporting date
  8. Share-based payment
  9. Fair Value Measurement
  10. Reporting requirements of small and medium-sized entities (SMEs)
  11. Other reporting issues

Financial statements of groups of entities

  1. Group accounting including statements of cash flows
  2. Associates and joint arrangements
  3. Changes in group structures
  4. Foreign transactions and entities

Interpret financial statements for different stakeholders

  1. Analysis and interpretation of financial information and measurement of performance

The impact of changes and potential changes in accounting regulation

  1. Discussion of solutions to current issues in financial reporting

*Two of the following four options papers must also be completed:

Role of senior financial adviser in the multinational organisation

  1. The role and responsibility of senior financial executive/advisor
  2. Financial strategy formulation
  3. Ethical and governance issues
  4. Management of international trade and finance
  5. Strategic business and financial planning for multinational organisations
  6. Dividend policy in multinationals and transfer pricing

Advanced investment appraisal

  1. Discounted cash flow techniques
  2. Application of option pricing theory in investment decisions
  3. Impact of financing on investment decisions and adjusted present values
  4. Valuation and the use of free cash flows
  5. International investment and financing decisions

Acquisitions and mergers

  1. Acquisitions and mergers versus other growth strategies
  2. Valuation for acquisitions and mergers
  3. Regulatory framework and processes
  4. Financing acquisitions and mergers

Corporate reconstruction and reorganisation

  1. Financial reconstruction
  2. Business re-organisation

Treasury and advanced risk management techniques

  1. The role of the treasury function in multinationals
  2. The use of financial derivatives to hedge against forex risk
  3. The use of financial derivatives to hedge against interest rate risk

Strategic planning and control

  1. Strategic management accounting
  2. Impact of external factors on performance management
  3. Performance hierarchy
  4. Performance management and control of the organisation
  5. Changes in business structure and management accounting
  6. Other environmental and ethical issues

Impact of risk and uncertainty on organisational performance

  1. Impact of risk and uncertainty on performance management

Performance measurement systems and design

  1. Performance management information systems
  2. Sources of management information
  3. Recording and processing methods
  4. Management reports

Strategic performance measurement

  1. Strategic performance measures in the private sector
  2. Divisional performance and transfer pricing issues
  3. Strategic performance measures in not-for-profit organisations
  4. Non-financial performance indicators
  5. The role of quality in management information and performance measurement systems
  6. Performance measurement and strategic human resource management issues
  7. Other behavioural aspects of performance measurement

Performance evaluation and corporate failure

  1. Alternative views of performance measurement and management
  2. Strategic performance issues in complex business structures
  3. Predicting and preventing corporate failure

Knowledge and understanding of the UK tax system through the study of more advanced topics within the taxes studied previously and the study of stamp taxes.

  1. Income and income tax liabilities in situations involving further overseas aspects and in relation to trusts, and the application of additional exemptions and reliefs.
  2. Chargeable gains and capital gains tax liabilities in situations involving further overseas aspects and in relation to closely related persons and trusts, and the application of additional exemptions and reliefs.
  3. Inheritance tax in situations involving further aspects of the scope of the tax and the calculation of the liabilities arising, the principles of valuation and the reliefs available, transfers of property to and from trusts, overseas aspects and further aspects of administration.
  4. Corporation tax liabilities in situations involving overseas and further group aspects and in relation to special types of company, and the application of additional exemptions and reliefs.
  5. Stamp taxes
  6. Value added tax, tax administration and the UK tax system

The impact of relevant taxes on various situations and courses of action, including the interaction of taxes

  1. Taxes applicable to a given situation or course of action and their impact.
  2. Alternative ways of achieving personal or business outcomes may lead to different tax consequences.
  3. Taxation effects of the financial decisions made by businesses (corporate and unincorporated) and by individuals.
  4. Tax advantages and/or disadvantages of alternative courses of action.
  5. Statutory obligations imposed in a given situation, including any time limits for action and the implications of non-compliance.

Minimising and/or deferring tax liabilities by the use of standard tax planning measures

  1. Types of investment and other expenditure that will result in a reduction in tax liabilities for an individual and/or a business.
  2. Legitimate tax planning measures, by which the tax liabilities arising from a particular situation or course of action can be mitigated.
  3. The appropriateness of such investment, expenditure or measures, given a particular taxpayer’s circumstances or stated objectives.
  4. The mitigation of tax in the manner recommended, by reference to numerical analysis and/or reasoned argument.
  5. Ethical and professional issues arising from the giving of tax planning advice.
  6. Current issues in taxation.

Communicating with clients, HM Revenue and Customs and other professionals

  1. Communication of advice, recommendations and information in the required format.
  2. Presentation of written information, in language appropriate to the purpose of the communication and the intended recipient.
  3. Conclusions reached with relevant supporting computations.
  4. Assumptions made or limitations in the analysis provided, together with any inadequacies in the information available and/or additional information required to provide a fuller analysis.
  5. Other non-tax factors that should be considered.

Regulatory Environment

  1. International regulatory frameworks for audit and assurance services
  2. Money laundering
  3. Laws and regulations

Professional and Ethical Considerations

  1. Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants
  2. Fraud and error
  3. Professional liability

Quality Control and Practice Management

  1. Quality control (firm-wide)
  2. Advertising, publicity, obtaining professional work and fees
  3. Professional appointments

Planning and conducting an audit of historical financial information

  1. Planning, materiality and assessing the risk of material misstatement
  2. Evidence and testing considerations
  3. Audit procedures and evidence evaluation
  4. Using the work of others
  5. Group audits

Completion, review and reporting

  1. Subsequent events and going concern
  2. Completion and final review
  3. Auditor’s reports
  4. Reports to those charged with governance and management

Other assignments

  1. Audit-related and assurance services
  2. Specific assignments
  3. The audit of social, environmental and integrated reporting
  4. The audit of performance information (pre-determined objectives) in the public sector
  5. Reporting on other assignments

Current Issues and Developments

  1. Professional and ethical developments
  2. Other current issues

The ACCA full Professional qualification is regarded as the equivalent of a taught UK master’s degree by the UK NARIC and Department of Education.